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Full text of "Calculation of atmospheric transmittance by IBM 3033 computer code LOWTRAN IIIB."

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U?S 



NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 

Monterey, California 




THESIS 



CALCULATION OF ATMOSPHERIC TRANSMITTANCE 
3Y IBM 50 3 3 COMPUTER CODE LOWTRAN TUB 



by 



Moon-Sik Shin 



Jane 1983 



Thesis Advisor 



Alfred W. Cooper 



Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 

T208 



SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (*han D«<« Emtr.j) 



REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 



report numVYI 



READ INSTRUCTIONS 
BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 



2. GOVT ACCESSION NO 



3. RECIPIENT'S CAT ALOG MJMBER 



4. TlTLe (and Subtttla) 

Calculation of Atomospheric Transmittance by 
IBM 3033 Computer Code LOWTRAN IIIB 



S. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED 

Master's thesis; 
June 1983 



6 PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 



7. AU~HOR<», 

Moon-Sik Shin 



8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBERCiJ 



9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME ANO AOORESS 

Naval Postgraduate School 
Monterey, California 93940 



10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK 
AREA 4 WORK UNIT NUMBERS 



11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 

Naval Postgraduate School 
Monterey, California 93940 



12. REPORT DATE 

June 1983 



13. NUMBER OF PAGES 
101 



14. MONITORING AGENCY NAME • AOORESSf" dlllaranl trom Controlling Olllca) 



IS. SECURITY CLASS. (o< thl» rapon) 



13«. DECLASSIFICATION- DOWNGRADING 
SCHEDULE 



It. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (ol thla Report) 

Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 



17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (ol lha abttraet antatad In Block 30, II dltlarant Irotn Report) 



It. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 



I*. KEY WOROS (Contlnua on rararaa alda II nacaaaary and idmnttty by block nionbar) 

LOWTRAN 

transmission 

aerosol 



20. ABSTRACT (Contlnua on ra*«M alda II mctiMrr and Identity by block numbar) 

LOWTRAN IIIB is a FORTRAN computer program for prediction of atmospheric 
optical transmittance, developed at the U. S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory 
(AFGL) . LOWTRAN IIIB was received in the modified form developed by Naval 
Weapons Center China Lake for use on the UNIVAC 1110 computer (Ref . 1) , and 
has now been interfaced to the IBM 3033 computer. 

Due to compiler storage limitation in the IBM computer the atmospheric 
data are read into common storage at the beginning of the program. The two 



DO | JAN 7) 1473 EDITION OF 1 NOV «S IS OBSOLETE 



S/N 0102- LF- 014- 6601 



SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Whan Data Kntatmr- 



SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS F-AOe (Whmn Dmtm Entmtmd) 



dimensional block data submodule has been replaced with a linear data array, 
and a new subroutine (array) written to reformat the data. The basic 
logic structure is unchanged. 

Comparisons of NPS LOWTRAN IIIB computations with direct optical extinctions 
measurement over Monterey Bay and at San Nicolas Island indicate that under 
these circumstances LOWTRAN IIIB underestimates the extinction due to 
aerosols while the computed molecular absorption is in substantial agreement 
with experiment. 

LOWTRAN IIIB is presently available as a method of predicting atmospheric 
transmittance at low resolutions at NPS and is suitable for incorporation 
in simulations and studies of electro-optic weapon/sensor systems performance 



S N 0102- IF- 014- 6601 



SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS P *G€(Wh»n Dttm Enfrmd) 



Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 



Calculation of Atmospheric Transmit tance 
IBM 3033 Computer Code LOWTRAN IIIB 



by 



Moon-Sik Shin 



Major. Korea Air Force 
B.S., Bepublic cf Korea Air Force Academy, 1973 



Submitted in partial fulfillment of the 
requirements for the degree of 



MASTER OF SCIENCE IN PHYSICS 



from the 



NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 
June 1983 



* -°c/fe - 



ABSTRACT 



LOWTRAN IIIB is a FORTRAN computer program for prediction 
of atmospheric optical transmittance, developed at the U.S. Air 
Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL) . LOWTRAN IIIB was received 
in the modified form developed by Naval Weapon Center China 
Lake for use on the UNIVAC 1110 computer [Ref. 1], and has now 
been interfaced to the IBM 3033 computer. 

Due to compiler storage limitation in the IBM computer the 
atmospheric data are read into common storage at the beginning 
of the program. The two dimenstional block data submodule has 
been replaced with a linear data array, and a new subroutine 
(array) written to reformat the data. The basic logic 
structure is unchanged. 

Comparisons of NPS LOWTRAN IIIB computations with direct 
optical extinctions measurement over Monterey Bay and at San 
Nicolas Island indicate that under these circumstances LOWTRAN 
IIIB considerably underestimates the extinctions due to 
aerosols wihile the computed molecular absorption is in 
substantial agreement with experiment. 

LOWTRAN IIIB is presently available as a method for 
predicting atmospheric transmittance at low resolution at NPS 
and is suitable for incorporation in simulations and studies of 
electro-optic weapon/sensor systems performance. 



TABLE CF CONTENTS 



I. INTRODUCTION 10 

II. THEORY OF ATMOSPHERIC TRANSMITTA NCE 12 

A. MOLECULAR ABSORPTION 14 

5. CONTINUUM ABSORPTION 16 

1. Temperature Dependence 17 

2. Nitrogen Broadened Coeff icier. 1 : 18 

3. Transmission Calculations 19 

C. AEROSOL EXTINCTION COEFFICIENT & MODELS. ... 20 

1. aaroscl extinction coefficient ...... 20 

2. Aeroscl Model 22 

III. LOW RESOLUTION MODELLING 23 

A. MODEL ATMOSPHERES 2 3 

3. CALCULATION MODELLING 2'4 

IV. EXAMPLE OF PROGRAM USE 27 

A. PROBLEM 27 

3. OUTPUT FROM LOWTHAN IIIB 26 

V. APPLICATION 30 

A. LCHTRAN CALCULATIONS FOR THE MONTHLY AVERAGE 

DATA OF MONTEREY BAY 31 

3. OPTICAL TRANSMISSION AT SAN NICOLAS ISLAND, 

CEWCOM-7 8 36 

C. EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT FROM MARINA ^0 POINT 

PINOS 37 

VI. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 40 

APPENDIX A: LOWTRAN IIIB PROGRAM 42 



APPENDIX E: CONTINUED DATA PACKAGE 



APPENDIX C: SAMPLE OUTPUT 






APPENDIX C: DEFINITIONS AND SYMBOLS 



96 



LIST OF REFERENCES 



99 



INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST 



1 



LIST OF TABLES 

I. Optical Atmospheric Attenuation Coefficient ... 13 

II. Surface Level Condition for Model Atmospheres . . 23 

III. Brcadband System 30 

IV. Monterey Bay Area Average Weather Condition ... 32 

V. ccmparison of Transmitt ance by R.H S Temperature . 32 

VI. San Nicolas Data, CEWCCM-78 36 

VII. Meteorological Data 37 

VIII. Extinction Coefficient from Optical Measurement 

and LOWTRAN 33 



LIST OF FIGURES 



5.1 

5.2 
5.3 



Eandpass Regions for Gray-body Source 31 

Comparison of Transmittance das to R<=1. Humidity 3a 
Comparison of Transmittance ins to temperature . 35 



8 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

I wish to express my appreciation to the Air Force Korea 
for opportunity to study in the subject area of this thesis. 

I would like to express my sincere appreciation to 
Professor A. Cooper for his endless patience and willingness 
to stop whatever he was doing and provide much needed guidance 
His positive attitude and encouragement were a tremendous 
support . 

The assistance of Professor G. E. Schacher in making his 
data available for comparison is greatly appreciated. 

I would also like to thank Professor E. Milne for his 
efficient assistance and the faculty of the Physics Department 
for the instruction I received during my course of study at 
the Naval Postgraduate School. 

Finally, I would like to thank my loving wife, So-Young, 
my cute daughter, Hui-Won, and my son, Dong-Joon, for their 
faith, encouragement, and prayers during the past year. 



LOWTEAN IIIB is a FORTRAN computer program, developed a*, 
the U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL), which was 
received ir. the modified form developed by Naval Weapon 
Center. It calculates the transmi ttance cf the earth's 

atmosphere in the spectral region from 0.25 to 23.57 microm- 
eters (350 to 40,000 ctn-1) at 20 cm-1 spectral resolution on 
a linear waveaumber scale. Six atmospheric models, which 

are tropica!, midlatitude summer and winter, subartic summer 
and winter, and the U.S. 1962 standard atmosphere, coverino 
seasonal and latitudinal variations from sea level tc 100 km 
are available, in addition tc a capability of allowing the 
user to input atmospheric parameters of his own choosing. 
The program includes four aerosol models which are average 
continental, urban, rural, and maritime, and either hazy (5 
km visibility) or clear (2 3 km visibility) haze conditions 
can te selected in addition to the capability of selecting a 
particular visibility of the user's choosing. The •node! 
accounts for molecular absorption, molecular scattering, and 
aerosol extinction, plus atmospheric refraction and earth 
curvature effects. 

LCWTBAN IIIB is presently an available method fcr pred- 
icting atmospheric transmi ttance at low resolution at NPS 
and may be incorporated in simulations and studies of 
elect ro-cptic weapon/sensor systems performance. 

Basically, this thesis describes a program tc 

a) Develop a computer code to calculate atmospheric 
transaiittance for particular wavelengths. 

b) Develop a cede to give transmittance and molecular 
absorptance with bandwidth appropriate to grey-body screes. 



10 



c) Apply thsse to prediction of transmit tance ov=r a 
marine optical path, based on the available meteorological 
data base fcr the area, fcr conditions appropriate tc the 
optical propagation experimental measurement program at the 
Naval Postgraduate Schocl. 



1 1 



II. THEORY OF AT^OSPBERIC TRANSMITT ANCE 

Beer's law for linear propagation of mcnochr cmat ic rad; 
atior. in the linear regime can be expressed as fellows; 



j- [kv)j = -/i(y)i m (eqn 2.1) 

or 



I (z) = 1(3) e (eqn 2.2) 

I<Z' -• • j= d 

The ratio — — is defined as tne transmittance T of the path 
of length z, and u is the total extinction coefficient which 
is the sum of the coefficients for total absorption and 
non-fcrward scattering 

m = xi A + n s 
Both the scattering and aoscrption coefficients can be 
divided into components due to the molecules of the air and 
the aerosol particles suspended in it; i.e. 

where k^ = molecular absorption coefficient 

k A = aerosol absorption coefficient 

^, = molecular scattering coefficient 

G~^ = aerosol scattering coefficient 
The relative values of the four coefficients depend strongly 
on the density and molecular composition of the atmosphere 
and the composition, number density and size distribution of 
the aerosols. The order of importance in each of the impor- 
tant atmospheric transmission windows is shown in Table I 
[Ref. 2]. Me nots from this that scattering ty both 



12 



molecules and aerosols is of greater importance in the 
visible, and absorption in the infrared (particularly 9 to 
14 urn). Since devices are designed to operate throughout 
these windows, it is important to predict the transnittance 
of the ataicsphere as a function of wavelength and weather 
conditions. This prediction becomes a complex problem oi 
computer modelling. The problem requires a definition of 

the composition, density and pressure of the atmospheric 
gases, together with the frequencies, line strengths and 
line widths of all the spectroscopic transitions of the gas 
molecules and the aerosol constituents, and the number, size 



TABLE I 
Optical Atmospheric Attenuation Coefficient 



Atmcsoheric 

window 

Visible 
Near Inirarad 
Middle Infrared 
Far Infrared 



Wavslength for 
EO systems (Jim) 



0.4 
0.7 
3.0 
8.0 



0. 7 

1. 2 
5. 
12.0 



Attenuation Coefficients 
in order of importance 

G7., <_„.• ~>^ i^w 



and composition distributions of the particles. 

Over the entire wavelength range from visibls to 
infrared the absorption by molecules, scattering by aerosols 
and absorption by aerosols are the dominant extinction 
mechanisms, and should be considered. In the "window" 

regions of good transmittance, the molecular line absorption 
is relatively small, and may in some regions be ignored. 
The remaining extinction in these regions is due to aerosol 
scattering (which varies only slowly with wavelength) and 
"continuum absorption" by the molecules. 



13 



A. HCLECOLAB ABSORPTION 



Tc compute the monochromatic transmit tance of the atmo- 
sphere, we must first obtain accurate data describing ths 
frequencies, intensity and line shape of all absorption 
lines affecting the attenuation. These should be developed 
a compilation based on certain constraints dictated by 
atmospheric abundances if we need to develop this monochro- 
matic capability. 

The approach by AFGL is to calculate the tzansmittance 
at given wavelength for each transition having finite 
absorption at that wavelength for each of the molecules. 
The summation over ail the molcules gives a monochromatic 
transnittance which is appropriate directly for laser propa- 
gation, tut must be degraded by integration over finite 
bandwidth fcr low resolution predictions suitable to non- 
laser sources. 

To calculate the transmittance T = e , the absorption 

coefficient K w should be known as a function of frequency 
fcr each line. 

The fcur essential line parameters for each line are the 
resonant frequency, \; o (cm-1), the intensity per absorbing 
Doclecule, S (cm- 1/molecule cm-2) , the Lorentz line width 
parameter, ^ (cm-1/atm) , the energy of the lower state, 
E" (cm-1), and the line half-with at half maximum,^, which is 
propcrticr.al to the pressure. The frequency,^/, is indepen- 
dent of both temperature and pressure. The molecular 
aosorcticn coefficient is given by 



K * W = 






(eqn 2.3) 



S = K m W dU 



m 



(eqn 2 .4 ) 



14 



The pressure broadened line width depends in a compli- 
cated fashion on temperature; for computation this is 
approximated by the assumption of temperature - independent 
collision diameters, leading to 



* '^V.'Vj^ 



(sqn 2.5) 



where P = 1 atm, and 

T = 296 degrees Kelvin. 

The intensity, S, is pressure-independent and 

erasure dependence can be calculated from E" and 



its temp- 






tO^X exph.439 S"(X^1)1 jogu 2.6) 
j- (T) L T i^ J 



where C y and Q r are vibrational and rotational partition 
functions respectively. At lower pressure the collision 

broadening diminishes and Doppler broadening becomes impor- 
tant. In the inter media re pressure range the Voigt profile 
obtained by convolving the two profiles is used. Once 

Dcppler broadening dominates the Gaussian profile may be 
used. Lcrentz linewidths are typically .00 1 ro .01 cm-1, 
while the Doppler width may be C.0003 cm-1. 

The AFCRL calculations [Ref. 14] are based on the 
Absorption Line Parameters Compilation, which originally 
listed J^ , S(T) r *C(Ps, Ts) and E" for 130,000 lines in the 
range beyond 1 /am, for each one of the species water, carbon 
dioxide, czene, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, methan e and 
oxygen. A new version of the compilation including over 
139,000 lines between 0.2 Aim and 30 Aim was recently reported 
by AFGL [Bef . 3 ]. 



15 



B. CCNTINUOM ABSORPTION 

Continuum absorption occurs as a result of cclli- 
sionai interactions tstween molecules; -hat is, collisicns 
between two H a molecules and those of other gases (princi- 
pally K a C: N x collision, since nitrogen comprises approxi- 
mately 8C % of the air) 

In wavelength regions between the absorption bands seme 
attenuation occurs of a continuous nature which is attri- 
buted to water vapor. The mechanism of water vapor 
continuum extinction lacks a complete theoretical explana- 
tion. At present, it is believed that it results from the 
accumulated attenuations of the distant wings of H x absorp- 
tion lines, occurring principally in the far infrared part 
of the spectrum. Other postulates, such as that the pheno- 
menon is caused by other absorption mechanisms involving K^O 
dimers, remain possibilities yet to be proved. 

However, all that we can do at present is to account for 
the water vapor continuum phenomenon empirically, based on 
what limited experimental measurements we have to go en, 
until better line shape theories become available. It 

should be emphasized that further accurate and well cont- 
rolled measurements are urgently required in order tc 
account for this phenomenon in real atmospheric situations 
with confidence. 

A common formulation used (for example in LOWTSAN III3) 
to account for the water vapor continuum attenuation at a 
fixed temperature has been to define the transmittance 10/) 
as fellows; 



T (» = e (egn 2.7) 



where the attenuation coefficient k(^) is given by 



16 



K (y) = c, 



C 



**•♦ c ^"^ 



GJ 



(eqn 2.3) 



where P u _ and P T refer to the water vaocr partial pressure 
and airient pressure respectively (aim) , and CJ def in9S the 
quantity cf water vapcr per unit pathlength (gm ci-2 krc-1). 
The quantities C. and C N are generally referred to as the 
self and foreign (nitrogen) broadening coefficients for 
water vapcr. 

Values for C- and C H /C S have been obtained empirically 
from laboratory measurements. In LOW TRAM versions I through 
III, the guantity C w /C s is assumed to remain constant over a 
given wavelength interval. However, a major addition in 
LOWTRAN HIE has been to account for the temperature depen- 
dence of Cs and this will be discussed in the 8-14 >um H^O 
continuum region. The B 4 continuum radiation in the 
3.5-4.2 jidd region is cf much less importance and will not be 
futher discussed here. 

1 • Temperature Depe nde nce 

The water vapcr continuum attenuation coefficient 
has been found to have a significant temperature dependence, 
which was net accounted for in the previous LOWTRAN computer 
codes. Eased on the laboratory measurements using samples of 
watar vapcr at elevated temperatures, an approximate empir- 
ical expression was obtained by Roberts et al [Ref. 6] for 
the temperature dependence which is given in Sqn 2.9 belcw. 
It was fcund that the attenuation coefficient due tc the 
water vapcr continuum increases as the temperature 
decreases. That is, for a fixed amount cf water vapor in a 
given path, one would expect more absorption at lower temp- 
eratures and less absorption at higher temperatures. This 
is a somewhat unusual phenomenon. In practice cne finds 

less water vapor in the atmosphere under cold conditions, 
therefore, the effect of temperature on the attenuation in 



17 



the 9-14 /U3i region plays two competing rcUs, through -h-. 
total water content cf the path and the atter.uat ion coeffi- 
cient . 

The empirical fits to the wavelength and temperature 
dependence of the water vapor continuum described in Roberts 
et al [Ref. 6] have been used in LOWTRAN HIE with the 

appropriate conversion of units as follows. 

-I a -i 

The attenuation coefficient C s in gin cm atm at 

296 K is given by the following expression in the 8-14 >um 
region: 



C (v», 296) =4. 18+5578expQ-7 .87x10~ V) (eqn 2.9) 

where 1/ is the wavenumber in cm (note that =10 A, where \ 
is the wavelength in Aim) . 

The temperature dependence of the coefficient c s was 
found to vary as : 



C s (V,T) = C 5 (>»,296)exp 6.08(— -1) (eqn 2.10) 

where T is the temperature in degrees Kelvin. 
2. Nitrogen Broadened Coefficient 



C N /C^ in the above Equation represents the ratio of 
the foreign (nitrogen) broadening coefficient to the self 
broadening coefficient. 

In LOWTRAN IIIB we use a value of 0.002 for the 
parameter C H /C S based on the measurements presented by 
Supplement LOWTRAN IIIB [Hef. 7], 

Here, it is assumed that C w /C s (at 2 96 K) does not 
vary with temperature (since no supporting measurements are 
available) . 



18 



Thus, further meas uremen ts a~2 needed tc determine 
more accurately the magnitude of the oarameter C^/C 5 and its 
temperature and wavelength dependence. 

3 . Tra r.sm i ssi on Calcu l at ion s 

The transmit tance due to the water vapcr ccntinuum 
in the 8-14 Aim region is calculated for a horizontal path of 
length RANGE (km) at altitude z using the following =xprss- 
sion in LCWTRAN IIIB: 



T(y) = expf-C (V, 296)xW(z) xSANGe] 



(egn 2. 11) 



where W(z) is the effective H absorber amount per unit 
path length (in gm • cm atm km" 1 ) at altitude z, and C s (yV 
296) is the water vapcr (self broadened) attenuation coeffi- 
cient obtained from laboratory measurements at a temperature 
cf 296 K. 

The quantity W(z) is given by: 



W(z) = w(z) P 1|jp exp[6.08(|i|-i;-+O.ooaCP T -p lfeo )] (eqn 2.12) 



where 

w (z) = gm cm-2/km of H20 in the path at temperature T, 



H a O 



= H20 partial pressure (atm) at aiti-ude z, 



p = ambient (tctal) pressure (atm) at altitude z, and 

T (z) = ambient temperature at altitude z (degrees 
Kelvin) . 

Note that the temperature dependence of the attenuation 
coefficient C 5 (i/,T) given in Eqn 2.10, has been incorporated 
into the expression for W in Eqn 2.12. The reason for this 



19 



is so that, the temperature variation over a giver, atmos- 
pheric slant path is weighted equally with the water content 
along the path. 

It may be worth contrasting Eqn 2.12 with th<= 
corresponding expression which has been used in LOHTRAN I 
through LCWTFAN III, that is: 



W (z) = w (z) 



^o* - 005 ^-^) 



(egn 2. 13) 



C. AEROSCL EXTINCTION COEFFICIENT 5 MODELS. 

Scattering ci radiation occurs from molecules in the 
air, from aerosol particles suspended in the air, and from 
water droplets in fog, rain or hail. The attenuation of a 
beam depends on the size and number density distribution and 
the refractive index of the particles. Atmospheric tran- 

smission may be strcngly influenced or even dominated by 
scattering from aercsol particles. The major parameter 
determining the interaction is the ratio of particle radius 
to the wavelegth of the radiation. 

1 • Aerosol exti nction coe fficient 

Aeroscl extinction is sum of the absorption and scattering 
ty aeroscl particles. Although scattering by aerosol parti- 
cles whose radius is smaller than about 0.03 times the 
wavelength of the light may be calculated by Fayleigh 
theory, for the whcle range of particle radius Hie thecry 
must te applied. 



20 



a. Eaylsigh Scattering 

The Rayleigh volume total scattering cceffic: 
may be written as 



^ = 



8 -rr 3 C vi-i > / 6 + 3p 



jMV 



( b + *V ) 
\ 6 -IP ' 



(eqn 2. 14) 



where n ; refractive index 

N ; the number density of molecules 
E ; depolarization factor due to seme molecular 
an i s ct r o p y . 

Following Penndorf [Ref. 8] it can be written in 
the following form which depends on pressure and tempera- 
ture. 



-a.o 



CL> -- °\. fro! * ,0 " J( a73 /-r) C p/i6i3) ^ ^ <m"' 



(eqn 2.15) 



The strcng dependence on wavelength means that Rayleigh 
scattering is a small effect for wavelengths longer than the 
visible. 

b. Mie scattering 

This is appropriate for the condition cf particle size 

comparable to wavelength; i.e., for large molecules and 

small droplets. This is the most important mechanism for 

atmospheric scattering. McCartney gives the scattering 
coefficient [Ref. 9]. 



0" = Tt/t^NtCt) K U,n) dr 



(eqn 2. 16) 



where r ; the particle radius 

N_ (r) ; the total number density of particles in th 
size range dr about r 



21 



K (o(,r. ) ; the area scattering coefficient, the ratio of 
effective area to geometrical area, which 
depends or. <>i = 2trn /\ and refractive index n. 

2« Aer c sol Model 

The range of conditions in the boundary Layer is 
represented by three diffent aerosol models, which are 
rural, urban or maritime. The first two a:? grouped 

together as " averaged continental " . 

a. Maritime 

Maritime aerosol composition and siz a distribu- 
tions are significantly different from rural and urban 
aerosol types. The maritime aerosol component is due to salt 
particles which are caused by the evaporation of seaspray ?. 
droplets. The concentration of particles near the surface is 
strongly dependent on wind speed ( above 7 m/sec ) and tne 
size distribution is also dependent on relative humidity. 
This salt-particle number- density decreases rapidly abeve 
about 50C m [Ref . 10 J. 

t. Rural 

Rural aerosol background is partly the product 
of reactions between various gases in the atmosphare and 
partly due to dust particles picked up from the earth 
surface. The particle concentration is largely dependent on 
the histcry of the airmass carrying the aerosol particles. 

c. Urban 

Urban aerosols contain certain additives from 
combusticn products and from industry. Shettle and Fenn 
assumed an addition of 35X soot-like particles of similiar 
distribution to the rural aerosol [Ref. 11]- 



22 



III. LOB RESOLUTION MODELLING 

A. fiCBEL ATMOSPHERES 

The iCHTRAN code provides a choice of six itmcspheiic 
models. These include the 1962 U. 5. Standard Atmosphere 
plus five supplement ary models. Surface level conditions for 
the supclsrcenta r y models are giver, in Table II [Ref. 1]. 
There are also two conditional haze models - corresponding 
to sea level visual ranges of 5 and 23 km - provided as 
basic input data for IOWTRAN III. Aerosol attenuation for 
ether visual ranges is calculated using an interpolation/ 

TABLE II 
Surface Level Condition for Model Atmospheres 



Model Latitude Fressur : 

atmosphere & 

month (mb) 

Subartic 

winter 60 N,Jan 1013 

summer 60 N,July 1010 

Midlatitude 

winter u5 N,Jan 1318 

summer 45 N.July 1013 



Tropical 



15 N 



1013 



emp. 


Air 


Water 


Ozone 


(K) 


density 
(g/a3) 


vapor 
(g/m3) 


(c/m2) 


257 
287 


1372 
1220 


1. 2 

9. 1 


4. 1E-05 
4. 9E-05 


272 

294 


1301 
1191 


3.5 
14.0 


6.0E-05 
6.CS-05 


300 


1 167 


19.0 


5.6E-05 



extrapolation procedure which utilizes these two models. In 
addition to the model atmospheres the user has the option of 
inserting his own model atmosphere, or of building another 
model by combining various parts of the six standard models. 
Provisions are made in the LOWIRAN program for inserting 
radiosonde data. There are limits on the accuracy of 
LOtfTRAN trarsmittar.ee calculations when the input is radio- 
sonde data alone. Radiosondes provide vertical profiles of 
the synoptic meteorological parameters of temperature. 



23 



pressure, humidity, and wind. Infer nation on aic:ca^:-:::o- 
logical parameters (i.e., aerosol size listributions, :al 

oxidant concentrations, etc.) is also needed as input. En 
the atser.ee cf aicrcieteorc logical inputs LGw'TRAN relies on 
its mcdel atmospheres for that information; this iay rot 
necessarily be applicable to a specific location. For 

further discussion or optical parameters see [Ref. 12]. 

E. CALCULATION MODELLING 

In the application it is impossiole to measure 
transmittancs at a single frequency. instead one msasures 
the transmittance T ii?) averaged over the spectral band- 
width, T (>>) , accepted by the receiver, as indicated in the 
eguation 



V^ = ^ 



ffW *P 



(eqn 3.1) 



where V is the central frequency in the interval, ^0 . 
Consequently for many applications one is interested in 
knowing the transmittance of the atmosphere averaged over a 
relatively wide spectral interval, that is, for lev. resolu- 
tion . 

Thus the term transmittancs is somewhat ambigucus unless 
it is qualified by seme indication of the spectral resolu- 
tion , j±y , ever which it is averaged. This is particularly 
true in the case of molecular absorption, since the absorp- 
tion coefficient K m is a rapidly varying function of 
frequency. It is because of the rapid variation of K^ with 
frequency that the averaged trarnittance T~ does not, in 
general, obey the simple exponential law. lhat is, 



T Ip) 



J_ 



'+v 



«*f [- Km (vjAyw] 



(eqn 3.2) 



24 



where K w represents the net mc nochromatic molecular 
absorption coefficient. On the other hand the molecular 

scattering coefficient (tf^) and the aercsol scattering and 

absorp-icn ccef f icients ( (f^ and K^) ars slowly varying func- 
tions of frequency, and *:he average transmirtar.ee obeys the 
simple exponential law provided only the direct transmitted 
beam is being observed 

There are four basic approaches to obtaining a low reso- 
lution transmittance value for a given path through the 
atmosphere due to molecular absorption. These are; 

(1) direct measurements over the required path, 

( 2) measurement s in the laboratory under simulated condi- 
tions , 

(3) line-by-line (monochromatic) calculations based or 
detailed knowledge cf spectroscopic line parameters which 
are then averaged over the required spectral interval, and 

(4) calculation s based on band model techniques (which use 
available laboratory and/or field transmittance measurements 
or actual line data as a basis). 

From the point of view of computations, method 3 
involves a considerable amount of work and computer time, 
and consequently method 4 has been used most frequently. 

Easically, it involves a graphical or computerized 
"curve fitting" technique for accessing the stored transmit- 
tance data for the appropriate absorber and scatterer 
amounts computed from the input atmospheric path conditions. 
The predetermined variations of transmittance with frequency 
are stored for the various atmospheric constituents, for 
standard path conditions. 

For a given set of meteorological conditions and 
selected path, the appropriate absorber and scatterer 
amounts in the required path are computed for each component 
and the results used to correct the transmittances for these 
components. The transmittances for the separate processes 



25 



(line absorption, continuum absorption, molecular scat- 
tering* aerosol scattering and aerosol absorption) ar= then 
multiplied together to give the overall absorptic:.. That is 



T (2J) (total) = I AV ( V ) (line absorption) x 

T 4lJ (^) (continuum absorption) x 
T^ v (^) (Payleigh) x 
1 AV (^/) (aerosol) . 
It should be noted that the LOSTRAN computer cede is 
designed to calculate the transmittance for spectral bancs. 
It should not be used to calculate transmission for laser 
lines. Suitable techniques for computing a- mo spheric tran- 
smission for laser lines or extremely narrow spectral bands 
are described in [Ref. 13], [Ref. 14], and [Ref. 15]. 



26 



IV. EXAMPLE OF PROGRAM OSE 



A. EBOELEM 

As a check on the performance of the code a sample calcula- 
tion was carried out using the same input data described by 
Shlanta and Cornette [Ref. 1], for which -hey prcvide 
computed output. 

The example is the calculation of the transmit-ar.ee from 
2350 *o 2450 cm-1 in steps of 5 cm-1 for a slant path from 
2.5km to 8.5 km at a zenith angle of 65 degree, for a 
subartic winter model atmosphere, and a 23 km visual range. 

The program is initiated with data input on 4 cards 
(lines) defiring the conditions of the computation, and user 
directions are given at the beginning of the program listing 
(Appendix A) . 

CARD 1 **5**1**1 

5 ; Sub-artic winter atmospnare 

1 ; An average continental aerosol model 

1 ; For 23 km visible range 

; For normal operation, etc. 
CARD 2 **2** 0*********2 •500*****8. 500****65,000 

2 ; Vertical S slant path between two altitudes 
; For normal operation of the program which 

selects the shorter path when applicable 
2.500 ; Observer altitude (Jem) 
8.500 ; Scurce altitude (km) 
65.000 ; Zenith angle at H1 (deg.). 
CARD 3 **2350. 000**2450. 000*****5. 000 

2350.000 ; Initial frequency (cm-1) 
2450.000 ; Final frequency ( " ) 
5.000 ; Frequency intervals at which 
transmit tance is printed. 



27 



CARD U **G 

; Tc end data. 

B. OOTFOT FROM LOITBAN IIIB. 

The output for this problem is given in Appendix C. The 
parameters defining the atmospheric path, model atmospheres 
and frequency range are first printed out. Following tabu- 
lations give the absorber amounts for horizontal and 
vertical path. At the heading HORIZONTAL PROFILES there are 
13 columns. The first column gives a running integer asso- 
ciated with each level. The second column gives the level 
altitude in km. The next 8 columns give the equivalent 
absorber amounts per km for the following absorbing species: 
water vapor, uniformly mixed gas, ozone, nitrogen continuum, 
water vapor continuum (10 jum), molecular scattering, aerosol 
extinction and UV czcne, respectively. The next three 

columns give the mean refractive index modulus frum that 
level to the level above, the equivalent absorber amounts 
per km for the water vapor continuum (4 jum) and for nitric 
acid . 

A heading VERTICAI PROFILES is then printed followed by 
15 columns. The first and second columns give the integer 
associated with the levels traversed by the path and the 
height of the level. Tnen follow 8 columns which give the 
integrated equivalent absorber amounts from the initial 
altitude to the level above (in the same order as indicated 
above). The next 4 columns are labelled PSI, PHI, BETA, and 
THETA (see Appendix D) . 

The total equivalent absorber amounts for each absorber 
species are then summarized below in their appropriate 
units. 



28 



The second line in the total equivalent abscrtc-r amount 
table gives the water vapcr continuum amount (U ;ura) and the 
nitric acid amount. 

A t ransmit t ance table, containing 12 columns, now 
follows. The first 3 columns give the frequency (cm-1) 
wavelength (jqe) , and total transmittar.ee. The r.ext 7 

columns show the individual t ransmittances iue to water 
vapor, uniformly mixed gases, ozone, nitrogen (4 jum) 
continuum, total water vapor continuum, molecular scat- 
tering, and aerosol extinction. The last 2 columns give 
absorption due to aerosols and the cumulative integrated 
absorption. The latter quantity can be used to determine 
the average transmittance over any given spectral interval 
within the spectral range covered oy the calculation. 
Finally, the total integrated absorption from V1 to V2 is 
printed cut together with the average transmittance ever the 
band . 



29 



V. APPLICATION 

The purpose cf this implementation of LOHTBAfl IIIB is to 
present a simple aethcd of predicting atmospheric transmit- 
tance (at lew resolution) which is applicaole over a wide 
spectral interval and for a wide range of atmospheric path. 

In this study the bandwidths of the computations have 
been chosen to match the transmission bands of the filters 
used by the atmospheric optics measurement group at MPS 
[Ref. 16]. These filters have been used with grey - body 
sources tc give wavelength resolution in a number of trans- 

TABLE III 
Broadband System 



center 


filter 




gr ey-bodv 




wave- 


bandwidt h 


it 


source 


detector 


length 


at 1/2 ht 




temp. 
2300 




ftn 


(Xi n) 
.010 


(CM-1) 
20619-21053 


Si 


0.63 


.010 


15748-16000 


ii 


ii 


0.8a 


.010 


11334-11976 


ii 


n 


1.C3 


.010 


9662-9756 


ti 


ii 


1.06 


.0 10 


9390-9479 


ti 


ii 


1 .60 


.098 


6064 -6447 


ii 


h 


2. 15 


.097 


4549-4759 


ii 


Ge 


3. 80 


.400 


2500-2778 


1800 


InSb, 77K 


3. 835 


. 1 10 


2571-2646 


ii 


II 


10.66 


2.850 


827-1083 


ii 


HgCdTe, 77K 


11 .02 


.710 


379-938 


it 


it 



mittance measurements at Monterey and elsewhere. Figure 5.1 
shows the passbands cf the grey-bedy source filters superim- 
posed on curves of atmospheric transmittance for a 1000 ft, 
path at sea level containing 5.7 mm of precipitable water at 
79°F. The filter bands are shown as Table III. 



30 



A. 




Ifi&LiLL. 



10.0 MO 110 U.O 14.0 13 l« I 7 It 19 20 21 ?] 2J 24 21 

•AVI LENGTH .» 



Figure 5.1 Bandpass Regions for Grey-body Source. 

LCITBAN CALCULATIONS FOR THE MONTHLY A7ERAGE DATA OF 
MCNTEBEI BAY 



Calculations intended for us= in the propagation studies 
in the Monterey 3ay Area make use of the known range of 
conditions and three different relative humidities, 70 , 60, 
and 90 %, taking into account tne monthly and yearly aver- 
ages cf air pressure, air temperature, dewpoint temperature, 
water vapor density, and relative humidity. These monthly 
and yearly averages are taken from the thesis by Guner 
[Ref. 4], and ozone density is translated from that source 
to 6.002-05 gm/m3, consistent with the midlativade model in 
Table II. In this Table IV the average temperature is used 
which is the mean value cf maximum and minimum average temp- 
eratures corresponding to day/night conditions. 



31 



Tabl£ v shows the calculated atmospheric transmittance 
for 3 different cases of relative humidities and tempera- 
tures fcr selected wavebands of the broadband system at sea 
level (1.60, 2.15, 3. 80 r 3.335 f 10.66, 11.02 Aim), 13. 1o km 

range, and with typical May conditions. Figure 5.2 and 
Figure 5.3 also represent the atmospheric transmittance cf 
Table V. 

By comparing the numbers for different relative 
humidity, it can be seen that increasing relative humidity 

TABLE IV 
Monterey Bay Area Average Weather Condition 





mean pr. mean temp. 


mean dew. 


H20 den. 


rel. hum 




(mfcars) 


'deg.) 
0.03 


(deq.) 
b . \2 


(gm/M ) 


(ft 


JAN. 


1020.0 1 


7.37 


FEB. 


1 20 . 


0.57 


6.68 


7.67 


76 


MAR. 


1017.5 1 


0.84 


6.68 


7.67 


78 


APR. 


1018.0 1 


1.68 


8.34 


8.53 


77 


MAY. 


1017.0 1 


3.34 


9.45 


9. 1 1 


77 


JUN. 


1C15.0 1 


4.45 


11 . 12 


10.16 


79 


JUL. 


1017.0 1 


4.73 


11.63 


10.55 


83 


AUG. 


1 17 . 5 1 


5.29 


10.23 


10.92 


84 


SEP. 


1013.5 1 


5.34 


14.73 


10.55 


79 


CCT. 


1 17 . 5 1 


4.73 


10.01 


9.40 


75 


NCV. 


1 C19. 1 


2.79 


7.23 


7.95 


72 


DEC. 


1 18 . 1 


1. 12 


6. 12 


7.37 


73 


YEAR. 


1017.5 1 


3.07 


8.89 


8.82 


77 



TABLE V 
Comparison of Transmittance by R. H 5 Temperature 





wavenumber 


Rel . 


, Kumic 


lity 
90 % 


teniae - 


rature ( 


C) 




Aim 


cm- 1 


70 % 


80 % 


0.0^ 


13.3 


30.0 


1] 


1.60 


6 064-6447 


.823 


. 823 


.323 


.823 


.823 


.823 


2 


2.15 


454 9-4759 


.3 34 


.332 


.331 


.833 


.833 


. 833 


3 ( 


I 3.80 


2500-2778 


.8 03 


.797 


.791 


.794 


.799 


.803 


4] 


3.835 


2571-2646 


.813 


.808 


.803 


.806 


.810 


. 614 


5 ( 


I 10.66 


827-1083 


.336 


.815 


.793 


.801 


.32 1 


.839 


6 


1 1.02 


87 9-93 3 


.8 56 


.833 


.806 


.818 


.840 


.86 



decreases the atmospheric transmittance. He can also see 
that increasing temperature increases the transmittance; 



32 



significant differences of the transaittance occur due to 

••-einperat ure . The numbers from the 8-14 Aim regicc are much 
larger than the other band. This point is consistent with 

the theory cf the temperature dependence from chapter II. 



33 



■* 
* 



> 

V 






T3 
•H 



14 



CN 



! 



o\° o\° o\° 
O O O 

r^ oo cn 



<ffiU 



CO 



III 



<pau 



^ 
** 

«* 



i 

C 

> 
•I 3 



lO 



1 I 



m 

«R 



CQ 



O 



> 

•H 

■M 

0) 



3 
T3 

0) 

O 

c 
id 

-H 

+J 

•H 

E 
CO 

c 

Eh 



c 


CO 

•- 

id 

6 
O 
o 



LO 

cu 

•H 
pM 



n 



14 
U 



r 



Ul 3JNtdJJ I U3"Nfcl*U 



34 



•* 
■» 









3 

U 
CD 

a 

6 

a) 

Eh 

O 

■P 



CNI 



3 

-a 



o 


CJ 


o 


TO 


. 


- o 


c 


co 


CO 


rH O 



< QQ O 



CO 



111 



<pau 



m 

r 



I 

C 

m 

C 

a 

u 

> 



a) 
o 
c 
aJ 
-p 
+j 

•H 

e 

CO 

c 

ITJ 
S^ 
H 

Mh 
O 

C 


CO 

•H 
SU 
03 

a 
6 
o 
c_> 



lO 



1 1 1 






CQ O 



CO 

CD 

3 
bO 

•H 

P- 



14 



r- 



«. JC J 3 7 Ntti J I WTNH»/J 



35 



B. OPTICAL TRANSMISSION AT SAN NICOLAS ISLAND, CEWCOM-78. 

In May 1973 the NFS Optical Physics and M icrometecroicg y 
Groups participated in a Cooperative Experiment, West Ccast, 
Oceanography and Meteorology, 1976 (CEWCOM-76) in coopara- 
ticn with the measurement program OSP-III run by the USB 
Optical Signatures Program on San Nicolas Island. Optical 
transmittance measurements frcm the R/V ACANIA to shore and 
micrcmetecrclogical treasure ments on th9 R/V ACANIA were made 
by NFS measurement group, ana other meteorological data were 
monitored in the OSP experiment. Weather conditions limited 
the data obtained. 

The measured transmittance of the optical path from the 
R/v ACANIA to site A on the northwest tip of San Nicolas 

TABLE VI 
San Nicolas Data, CEWCOM-78 

Date Time Ranae(m) Broadban i (xim) 

3.6-4.0 9.0-12.0 

5/15 1126 63.0 % (9a. 99) 



n 
it 



1126 




1458 


2192 


1633 


2200 


1649 


22C0 



45.2 %(96. 14) 
57.8 S<95,31) 

4 9.3 % (96.63) 



Island is listed in Table VI. The transmittances are the 
observed values, uncorrected for the molecular absorption, 
measured with filter selection from a grey-bcdy source. 

The micr ometeorclogicai data taker. by the N?S 
Meteorology Team during the CEWCOM-78 experiment [Ref. 16] 
and the Daily Statistical Summary of Meteorological Data 
[Ref. 17] are used to find interpolated temperature, relative 
humidity, and visibility. The numbers in parentheses repre- 
sent LOWTRAN predictions of transmittance, including both 
molecules and aerosol extinction based on these meteorolo- 
gical input data . 



36 



The comparison is given for tne ons day for which suffi- 

TABLE VII 
Heteorological Data 



Time 


Ercadba nd 
(Jim) 


rress. 
(mbar) 


Temp. Dew T. 
(deg.) (deg.) 


R.H. rfat er vapo 
(%) (g/m3) 


1 126 

1633 
1458 
1649 


3.6-4.0 

ri 

9.0-12.0 
it 


1013.2 
it 

it 

ii 


14.52 10.0 
14.99 10.9 
14.80 10.9 
14.93 10.0 


81.0 9.8 
66.7 " 
74.67 9.7 
65.69 9.5 



cient meteorological data are avaiiaole (Table VII). This 
compariscn shows the LOWTRAN predicted transmittance for 
these conditions to be much higher than the measurements. 
The oversst imation of transmittance by LOWTRAN suggests that 
the particle model included in the code may be inadequate, 
or that the model's total particle number density may be 
underestimated by the code. Calibration errors in the 

measurement equipment have been investigated and are consid- 
ered an unlikely source of the discrepancy. 

C. EXPERIMENTAL SEAS0BE3EIT FHOH MARINA TO POINT PINOS 

The current modelling effort was undertaken in support 
of an experimental progam of transmittance measurement of 
total extinction on ranges over Honterey Bay from Marina to 
Point Pines (June 1979) using laser and broadband (thermal) 
sources. The optical extinction was measured at 0.4850, 
0.6328, 1.03, 1.06, and 11.05/im. 

The calcuiat ional program has therefore been directed to 
computation of molecular absorption and aerosol extinction 
coefficients for sea level propagation under a range of 
weather conditions statistically typical of Monterey. This 
has been dene for a variety of wavelengths appropriate to 
the measurements, and averaged over the filter bandwidths 
for the broadband sources used (see Table III.). 

37 



The aerosol particle spectrum was measured or. beard the 
ACANIA with a Knollenberg counter. This information was 
used to predict a scattering extinction coefficient, basad 
en one pcint measurement of the particle size spectrum. 

Fcr comparison of data it is necessary to subtract the 
affects cf molecular absorption from the total optical 

TABLE VIII 
Extincticn Coefficient from Optical Measurement and LOSTRAN 



ate 


time 





pt ical 


LOWTRAN 


diff. 


aercscl 






Cam) 




total 


molecular 






6/6 


1734 


1 .60 


22.5 


2 .47 


0?072 


(a-c) 

22.4 


id) 
31 .6 




1714 


1 .06 


21.7 


2 .68 


0. 165 


21.5 


32.4 




1718 


1.03 


19.4 


2.69 


2.63 


16.8 


32.3 




1720 


0.84 


22.1 


2.75 


0. 196 


21. 9 


32.3 




1721 


0.63 


22.5 


2 .83 


0.066 


22.4 


32 .8 


6/7 


14C6 


11.02 


IS. 17 


1 .84 


1. 52 


17.7 


7.62 




1404 


10.6 


12.1 


2 .01 


1 . 49 


10.6 


7.72 




1423 


1 . 06 


35.5 


2.45 


0. 16 


35. 3 


48.7 




1434 


1. 03 


43.9 


4 .87 


2. 56 


41.3 


49.5 




1555 


11.02 


20.0 


1 .73 


1. 25 


18.8 


7.33 




1558 


10.6 


10.6 


1 .77 


1. 26 


9.34 


7.71 




1615 


1.6 


35.3 


2. 17 


0.07 


35.2 


49.2 




1628 


1.06 


38.3 


2.43 


0. 15 


38.2 


50.5 




1632 


1.03 


35.0 


4 .69 


2.4 


3 2.6 


51.4 




1634 


0.84 


40. 1 


2.52 


0. 18 


39.9 


51 .0 



1636 0.63 43.2 2.45 0.067 43.13 53.0 

extinction. This is done using LOWTRAN. The value cf rela- 
tive humidity and water vapor content have been obtained 
from Erof. Schacher and Dr. Fairall who made the aerosol 
measurements [Ref. 18]. 

The results are presented in Table VIII. The extinction 
in units of E-02 km-1 as measured optically, the LOWTRAN 
prediction cf total extinction, the molecular contribution 
computed by LOWTRAN, total measured minus LOWTRAN molecular, 
and the values calculated from aerosol spectra are shown. 

3y the compariscn seen by the Table VIII, optical 
extincticn compu~ed from the aerosol spectra is much higher 
than the LOWTRAN total extinction, and is very often higher 



38 



than the measure'? optical extinction. This may be doe to 
the fact that aercscl extinction was not measured tver tha 
whole path but at only one point. It was measure! en beard 
■the ACAMIA iet a oro logical mast at a height of approxiaately 
10 m above mean sea level, at approximately the center point 
of the optical path. The optical path in this experiment 
ranged frcm 18.3 m above sea level at Marina to almost sea 
level at the ACANIA, due to earth curvature over the 13.16 
km path. 

Total aerosol extinction from LOWTRAN is much less than 
the extinction calculated from the measured aerosol 
spectrum. Subtracting tne calculated molecular component of 
tha LCWTRAN from the optically measured extinction yields 
the aercscl extinction ("diff.") , which is much greater than 
the LCWTRAN aerosol component but somewhat less than that 
predicted frcm the aerosol spectra. i.e., agreement of 
aerosol extinction is much better with aerosol spectrum 
measurement than with the LCWTRAN aerosol extinction. It 
appears probable that the LOWTRAN model consistently under- 
estimates the severity of aerosol extinction in the marine 
environment . 



39 



VI. CONCLUSION AND B ECOMflENDATION 

The comparisons cf LOWTRAN IIIB predictions with optical 
measurements and with computations from particle sizo 
distribution measurements show considerable differences. 
The differences could conceivably arise from measur =oif nt 
errors in the optical transmittance and the particle 
measurements; the two physical measurements give results 
reasonably close to each other but in bcth cases differ 
markedly frcm LOWTRAN 1113. In view of the consideration 
give to toth measurement techniques it seems most likely 
that LOWTRAN IIIB consistently underestimates the aerosol 
attenuation in the infrared wavebands 

It must first be realized that LOWTRAN IIIB contains 
limitaticns. It does not include the effects of 

1.clcuds,fcg or precipitation 

2. refracticn, sc in till at ice or distortion of the propa- 
gating beam due to turbulence 

3. Dackgrcur.d interference frcm direct or scattered solar 
radiation 

4. surface level reflections and masking 

5. multiple scattering 

In addition the models of refraction and earth curvature 
are simplified and the atmosphere is considered to be hori- 
zontally homogeneous and stable with no inversion. These 
limitations mean that at best LOWTRAN IIIB results are of 
"moderate" accuracy. 

Seme of these limitations have been removed in the 
continuing evolution of LOWTRAN. LOWTRAN IV (Feb. 1978) in 
addition to using improved empirical transmit ta nee functions 
for gases cf small absorber amount, includes the affects of 
nitric acid as an absorber and emitter, and incorporates a 



40 



"radiance mode" to compute the radiance from th€ tth 

surface and the atmosphere. 

LCWTFAN V (Feb, 1S80) has bean upgraded to include new 
aeroscl ircdels dependent on altitude and relative humidity, 
and a mcdel for fog attenuation. 

It may be expected that implementation of th^se cedes 
(preferbly LOWTBAN V) may give better agreement between 
experiment and compution and allow better validaticn of 
aeroscl extincticn calculation methods. 

LCWTEAN IV and LCwTRAN V are not currently available at 
MPS in card cr tape fcrm, and considerable modification will 
be required to adapt them to use en the IBM 3033 system. In 
the absence of later fcrms of LOWTRAN, the IIIB version may 



still be usee 



to compare transmit tances under different 



conditions. In addition, little change has been made in the 
absorpticn in later versions, so that the use of IIIB to 
compute the atmospheric absorption is valid. This allows 

its use to compute aerosol extinction from total optical 
extincticn by subtraction of the calculated abscrpton. 

It is recommended that an effort should be made to adapt 
LOWTRAN V for the NPS IBM computer system. 



41 



APPENDIX A 

LOSTRAN IIIB PROGRAM 

0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 

ooooooooo«-'-'-»-'-'-'-'-'-'-(NtNntN(N(NM(N(N(Nrn rim^r^prinrnrna- ^^33 j- a- 
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 
OOO 000 00 000 0000 000 0000 000 000 00 00 000000000 0000c 

* * « •» 

* ft * * 

* * * * 

* ♦ ♦ ♦ X » V~ 

* •»■ 1 * ^ H sn 

* ♦ coh zx . # m m »=co 1 

* # C-* whs: * t a^co h e j 

* ♦ e wz*s * o xz <cj . w 

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O 3- r> oo oon *£> CNvO op- zt cn o ^ocn 

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I I I I I I I I I I I II 

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CN*-*-CNininin<NO«—rnOOO*—CNn'>3- 

I I I I I I I I I I I II 



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I I I I I I I I I I I I 11-11 

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(T l3'C0500'-000\OfT- 

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cn cm cn cm iT) in t^t-i in in < ir > rn cn 
1 1 t 1 1 1 t 1 1 1 1 

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incncnNOOomNOOOP"*— cn 

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1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

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1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

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o ao "1 o o cn cn on cm a- >o p- co o co m *- p* co 
o 3- r*> 00 cMin o ocr> cn nc vo in r_ r»- cm a- o 

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in o in ^ *- o o o"i no co ao P 1 * on cn t- p* in cn no rn 
o # . # . • t . . . t t t 

CMcn=rcMiTtnincNCNCN«— ooo»— oooocn 
U I I 1 I 1 l l l l I • l l II 

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o o ■=»■ cm o o '— m cn cn co on co cn cm cn p- 3- cn 

cn in cm on in in cn cm (n»— 0000*- ooocn 
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86 



APPENDIX B 
CONTINUED DATA PACKAGE 



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i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i 

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i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i 

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ii iiii i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i 

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<-fvip«-C0»-C0OJ^^(Na<O>a\0OOOOOO3'<Ti^T s U5S0>' T l' T l^cr3d , OOOOOOOO300(Nrr|n 

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ii iiii i i » i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i 



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91 



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95 



APPENDIX D 
DEFINITIONS AND SYMBOLS 



AB 




Absorption at fr 
transmitt ance 


AHZ1 , 


AHZ2 


Aeroscl number d 


AJ 




Equivalent abscr 


ALP 




Angle of arrival 


ANGLE 




Input zenith ang 


BET 




Angle subtended 
traverses adjace 


BETA 




Total angle subt 


EJ 




Equivalent absor 


CA 




Conversion facto 


CO 




Wavelength depen 
refractive index 






Cw 




Wavelength deoen 
refractive index 


C1 




Log absorption c 


C2 




Log absorption c 

gas 

leg absorption c 


C3 




cu 




Absorption co f f i 


C5 




Absorption coffi 


C6 




Extinction coeff 


CI 




Extinction coeff 


C7A 




Aerosol atsorpti 


C8 




Absorption coeff 
region) 


D 




water vapcr amou 
Cew point temper 


CP 




D5 




Path length from 


DV 




Wave numoer incr 
calculated 


DZ 




Height increment 


Em 

EH(1, 




Equivalent absor 


I) 


Equivalent absor 






at level Z (IJ 
Equivalent absor 


EH (2, 


I) 






dioxide, etc. at 


EH (3, 


I) 


Equivalent absor 
level Z(I) 


EH (4, 


I) 


Equivalent absor 
at level Z (I) 
Equivalent absor 






EH(5, 


I) 






continuum at lev 


EH (6, 


I) 


Equivalent absor 
scattering at le 
Equivalent absor 


EH (7, 


I) 






extinction at le 


EH (8, 


I) 


Equivalent absor 
and visible) at 
Mean refractive 


EH (9, 


I) 


EV 




Integrated absor 


FAC 




Factor for expon 


FO 




Transmissicn run 
scale for czone 


FW 




Transmissicn fun 
scale for water 


H 




Altitude (km) 
Initial Altitude 


H1 




H2 




Final Altitude ( 



equency V; also average 

ensity 

ber amount per km at level J 

at adjacent level 
le (degree) 

at the earth's center as path 
nt levels 

ended path at earth's center 
ber amount per km at level J+1 
r from degree to radians 
dent coefficient used in 

expression 
dent coefficient used in 

expression 
oefficient for water vapor 
cefficien 4 : for uniformly mix=d 

oefficient for czone 

cient for nitrogen 

cient for water vapor continuum 

icient for molecular scattering 

icient for aerosol models 

en coefficient 

icient for ozone (UV and visible 

nt (pr. cm/km) at level I 
ature ( C) 

level I to level I + 1 
ement at which transmit tance is 



from level I to I + 1 
ber amount per km at height H1 
ber amount per km for wafer 



vapor 



ber amount per km for carbon 

level Z (I) 
ber amount per km ror ozene at 

ber amount per km for nitrogen 

ber amount per km for water vapor 

el Z(I) 

ber amcunt oer km for molecular 

vel Z (I) 

ber amount oer km for waercscl 

vel Z (I) 

ber amount per km for ozona (UV 

level Z(I) 

index or layer above level Z (I) 

ber amount from level I to I + 1 

ential and linear interpolation 

etion logarithmic absorber amount 

ction logarithmic absorber amount 
vapor and uniformly mixed gases 

fkm) 

km) 



96 



HAZE Aeroscl auibe: density (no. cm-3) 

HM Estimated tangent heiakt ( km ) 

HMIN Minimum altitude of path trajectory (km) 

HZ | Aerosol number density (no. cm-3) for 23 km 

visual range 
HZ | Aerosol number density (no. cm-3) for 5 km 

visual range 
I Funning integer used as altitude indicator 

IAERO Indicator for type of aerosol model 

IATCM Number of levels in model atmosphere 

IDV Frequency increment (cm-1) 

IFIND Indicator for using subroutine ANGL 

IHAZE Aeroscl mcdei indicator 

IM Parameter used when reading in a ?. sw atmcsDhenc 

model 
IP Indicator for using subroutine POINT 10 calculate 

reference indax cnxy (IP = 0) 
IR Card printer number 

ITER.IIES Iteration counters 

ITYPE Indicator for type of atmospheric cath 

IV Frequency at which transmi ttance :s calculated 

IV1 Starting frequency 

IV2 Last frequency 

IW Line orinter number 

IXY Parameter for terminating program and cyclina 

indicator 
J Running integer for altitude identification 

JMIN altitude indicator for minimum height of path 

JP Print opticn for altitude H1 

J1 Level indicator for altitude H1 

J2 Level indicator for altitude H2 

K Absorber indicator, K=1, 2 r 3, etc., corresponds 

tc water vapor, uniformly mixed gases, ozone, 

etc., respectively 
K2 Cycling parameter for downward looking paths 

L Frequency indicator for ozone t ransmittince 

calculation 
LEN Parameter used for defining longest of two caths 

M Integer used to identify required model 

atmosphere 
ML Number of levels in radiosonde data input (MOCEL7) 

MODEL Integer used to identify required model 

atmosphere 
M1 Integer for selecting temperature altitude 

profile fcr (M=M1) 
M2 Integer for selecting water vapor altitude 

profile fcr (M=M2) 
M3 Inteaer fcr selecting ozone altitude profile fcr 

( M= M 3 ) 
N Indicator for level below given input altitude 

used in PCINT subroutine 
NL,NLP Number of levels in model atmosphere data 

NP Indicator for determining whether H1 or H2 

coincide with levels in the model atmosDhere 
N?1 Value of NP for altitude H1 

N?2 Value of NP for altitude H2 

NS1,NS2 Counters corresponding to W51 # WS2 

P(M,1) Pressure (mb| at level I for model atmosphere M 

PHI Angle of arrival at H2 

PPW Partial oressure of water vapor (in atmosphere) 

PS Total oressure in atmospheres 

PSI Angular deviation of pa^h from initial directicn 

PT Product of total pressure (atm) and the square 

root of 273/T (M r I) 
RANGE Path length (km) 

BE.REATH Earth radius (km) 

REF Refractive index of air at leval I 

EH Relative humidity {%\ 

RN Ratio of refractive indices of air above and 

97 



below a 
RX 


RO 
R1 


SAL? 

SPHI 

SR 

SUM 

T(M,I) 

THET 

THETA 

TMP 

TR 

TS 


TS1 
TT 
TX (K) 


IX (9) 
TX 10) 
TXT 
TX2 
TX1 
VH (K) 


VIS 
VX 


V1 

V2 

WH(M,I) 


HL,»L1 # 

wo ra, i) 

W5T 


WS2 


WS3 


X 

XI 
XX 


X1 

X2 

YN 


YN1 

YN2 

YY 

Z(I) ,ZO 



given level 

Ratio of earth center distances between adjacent 

1 ev e 1 s 

Earth radius (km) read in as input (=RE) 

The oroduct of tne sine of the initial zenith 

angle and the earth center distance to starting 

altitude 

Sine of angle of arrival at adjacent i = vei 

Sine of the local zenith angle at a giver, level 

Slant ranae (km) 

Accumiatecl absorption 

Temperature ( K) for model atmosphere a at level I 

Zenith angle at a given level fin radians) 

Zenith angle at a given level (in degrees) 

Ambient temperature (C) 

Transmittance scales for transmission functions 

Ratio of standard temperature (273.15 K) to 

temperature level I 

Ratio of 2S6 K to temterature at level I 

Ratio 273. 15/ (IMF + 273.15) 

Equivalent absorber amounts par km at a qiven 

altitude obtained from POINT; also transmittance 

values at a given wavelength for each absorber 

tyoe (K = 1,3) 

Total transmittance at frequency IV 

Absorption due to aerosol only at frequency IV 

Refractive index of layer above initial alt. H1 

Refractive index of layer above final alt. H2 

Refractive index of layer ar>ove minimum alt. HMIN 

Integral of the equivalent absorber amounts from 

H1 to level I 

Visual range (km) at sea level 

Wavelength at which aerosol coefficients are read 

in (micrometer) 

Initial frequency for transmittance calculation 

Final frequency rcr transmittance calculation 

Total equivalent absorber amount for entire path 

Water vapcr density for atmospheric model a at 

level I (gm m-3} 

WI2 Wavelength in microns 

Ozone density for atmospheric model M at level I 

Transmission function scaling factor for water 

vapor at given wavelength 

Transmission function scaling factor for carbon 

dioxide, etc., at given wavelength 

Transmission function scaling factor for ozone 

at given wavelength 

Input heiqht to POINT subroutine 

Wavenumbef interpolation parameter 

Wavenumber identification parameter for UV ozone 

transmittance calculation 

Earth center distance of level I 

Earth center distance of level I + 1 

Refractive index of laver oelow input height from 

POINT subroutine 

Refractive index of layer below initial alt. H1 

Refractive index of layer below final alt. H2 

Aerosol absorption coefficient at frequency V 

(I) Altitude at level I in km 



98 



LIST OF REFERENCES 



1. 



Naval weapon Center, Avail!, bi Litv of &t mos s baric 
T;:ans mittance Computer C oae lu'TTth an. by wT ccrr.ette,"!. 
3Hlan^a7~TIovT l^lb'. 

2. E. C. Crittenden- A. W. Ccooer, Sensors, Signals, and 
Sy.stexs. NPS. 198 2 

3. Rcthaan, L.S., "Update of AFGL Atmospheric Absorption 
Line Parameters Compilation" Appiie 3 Optics, v. 17, 
No. 22, Nov. 1976, 



a. 



5. 



13 



Nusret Guner, High Resolution Compu ter Calculation of 
Optical Transmttance ar "sea ^eveT~ over "Hon tar ay . 
TnesisT NPS7""T7ecT"T^7B. 



— 




702117), 1971 

6. Roberts, R. E. et al, Infrared Continuum Absorption by 
Atmospheric Water Vapor in the 8-12 Micrometer Window. 
i££i^M 2£li£S r 1U: 20 8 5, 1976. 

7. AFGL. At mos ph eric Tr ansmittanc a from 0.25 to 28.5 urn: 
Supp le me nFTO^TlunT 3B7~7Jov~*T^7'6" . T 

8. Penr.dorf, R. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47,176 , 1957. 

9. MacCartney, E. J. Optics of the Atmo sph ere , Wiley, 

1976. : 

10. Kelley, P. L. et al Journal of Defense Re a s e_!: c h , 7b, 
spring, 1975 

11. Shettle, E. F., Fenn, R. W., AGARD Conference 
J?I£ce d in 2s , No. 18 3, Faper 2 , Oct. 1 97T~ 

12. Naval Weapons Center ,E0 Weapon System y.eteorcgicai: 
Parameters and Ins t rum en tat ion, FwC "Tecnnicai ~"Hemo 
2"8557Iug-T97FT" 



Air Force Geophysics Laborator v, Optical Properties of 
the Atmosphere (third edition) , R. ~A". "HcClatcKe y et al. 
A-Fr5r-77-t7^77 SOS 1972 



99 



14. AFC5L, Atmos pheri c JL~!iH2££t ion Line Pa r a . ni c t-;rs 
CcjPllat ion, 17. A. SacCiaT cfiey , ~~ §T 
aT7"73Tm:"=TR-7 3-00 96, Jan 1973. 

15. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory. At mos pheric 
Attenuation >f Laser R adi ation fr >m 0.7^" ^1725 
\SmTF7 A"7 MacclaTcTTey, eTaI~XFCHL- T8-7T=0tnJ3, Jan 
7^74. 

16. G. E. Schacher at al, Hicro mete orological Data. nps, 
6 1-78-007, Sep. 1978. 

17. Pacific Missile Center, A tmo spheric Transmi ssio n and 
Sup porti ng Metecrolc££ in the" Taring Tnvir snmen^E i* 

San ^tcoias Island §e*ianual Fe_2ort ,~5y~^. o7~!a! thews 
et aI7~T3ec. TT7F" 



18. 



G. E. Schacher, et al, 0£lical Aer osol Soect re teeter 
Fac tors Affecting Opt ical Extin ctio n . N?s, bT-3U-0~TI7 



100 



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3. Litrary 

Republic of Korea Air Force Academy 
Seoul, Repulic of Korea 

3. Department Chairman 
Department of Physics 
Naval Postgraduate School 
Monterey, California, 93940 

4. Prof. Am w. Cooper 
Code 61cr 

Naval Fcstaraduate School 
Monterey, Califorria, 93940 

5. Prof. H. A. Milna 
Cede 6 1 m n 

Naval Fostgraduate School 
Monterey, California, 93940 

6. Mai. Kccn-Sik Shin, ROKAP 
Personnel Education Division 
Air Perce Headquarter 
Seoul, Republic of Korea 



101 



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Thesis 

S4743 

c.l 



Shin 

Calculation of atmo- 
spheric transmittance 
by IBM 3033 computer 
code LOWTRAN IIIB. 



Calculation of atmoshperic transmittance 




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